The graphical management tools provide just in this area everything you need to work with SQL Server. Still, there are many times when you might want to work from the command line, such as when you are working on a Windows Server 2008 R2 Core installation. To help with all your command-line needs, SQL Server 2012 includes the SQL Server provider for Windows PowerShell (also known as “SQL Server PowerShell”). To work with SQL Server via Windows PowerShell, you must first open a Command Prompt window or Windows PowerShell prompt and then initiation SQL Server PowerShell by typing sqlps at the command line.

Windows PowerShell introduces the concept of a cmdlet (pronounced “commandlet”). A cmdlet is the smallest unit of functionality in Windows PowerShell. Cmdlet names are not case-sensitive. SQL Server PowerShell cmdlets include the following:

Backup-SQLDatabase Performs backup operations on SQL Server databases.

Convert-UrnToPath Converts a SQL Server Management Object Uniform Resource Name (URN) to a SQL Server provider path. The URN indicates
a management object’s place within the SQL Server object hierarchy. If the URN path has characters not supported by Windows PowerShell, the characters are encoded automatically.

Decode-SQLName Returns an unencoded SQL Server identifier when given an identifier that has been encoded.

Encode-SQLName Encodes special characters in SQL Server identifiers and name paths to formats that are usable in Windows PowerShell paths. The characters encoded by this cmdlet include :/%<>*?[]|. If you don’t encode these characters, you must getting away from them by using the single quotation mark (‘) character.

Invoke-PolicyEvaluation Evaluates management policies applied to SQL Server instances. By default, this cmdlet intelligence compliance but does not enforce compliance. To enforce compliance, set –AdHocPolicyEvaluationMode to Configure.

Invoke-Sqlcmd Runs a Transact-SQL (T-SQL) or XQuery script containing orders supported by the SQLCMD utility. By default, this cmdlet doesn’t set any SQLCMD variables or return message output; only a subset of SQLCMD orders can be used.

Restore-SQLDatabase Performs restore operations on SQL Server databases.

To get detailed information in this area a cmdlet, type get-help cmdletname –detailed, where cmdletname is the name of the cmdlet you want to examine. To get detailed information in this area the SQL Server provider, which provides SQL Server functionality for Windows PowerShell, type
get-help sqlserver | more.

You can use the sqlps utility on any computer where you’ve installed SQL Server or the command-line management tools. The sqlps utility starts a Windows PowerShell session with the SQL Server PowerShell provider imported so that you can use its cmdlets and work with instances of SQL Server. When you are working with Windows PowerShell or scripts, you can import the SQLPS module to load the SQL Server provider, which automatically loads the vital assemblies and initializes the environment. While you previously needed to use an initialization script, this is no longer vital so long as you import the SQLPS module prior to trying to access the SQL Server instance. For best results, import the SQLPS module using the following command:

   Import-Module "sqlps" –DisableNameChecking

You can work with cmdlets by executing orders directly at the shell prompt or by running orders from scripts. You can enter any command or cmdlet that you can run at the Windows PowerShell command prompt into a script by copying the related command text to a file and reduction the file with the .ps1 extension. You can then run the script in the same way that you would any other command or cmdlet. Even if, when you are working with Windows PowerShell, the current index might not be part of the environment path. For this reason, you might need to use the ./ notation when you run a script in the current index, such as the following:


The current execution policy for SQL Server PowerShell controls whether and how you can run scripts. Although the default configuration depends on which operating system and journal you’ve installed, you can quickly determine the execution policy by inflowing get-executionpolicy at the Windows PowerShell prompt.

To set the execution policy to require that all scripts have a trusted signature to do, enter the following command:

set-executionpolicy allsigned

To set the execution policy so that scripts downloaded from the web do only if they are signed by a trusted source, enter:

set-executionpolicy remotesigned

To set the execution policy to run scripts regardless of whether they have a digital signature and work in an unrestricted environment, you can enter the following command:

set-executionpolicy unrestricted

For administration at the Windows PowerShell prompt, you use Invoke-Sqlcmd to run T-SQL or XQuery scripts containing orders supported by the SQLCMD utility. Invoke-Sqlcmd fully supports T-SQL and the XQuery syntax supported by the Database Engine, but it does not set any scripting variables by default. Invoke-Sqlcmd also accepts the SQLCMD orders listed in Table 1-3, later in this chapter. By default, results are formatted as a table, with the first result set showed automatically and subsequent result sets showed only if they have the same column list as the first result set.

The basic syntax you use most often with Invoke-Sqlcmd follows:

Invoke-Sqlcmd [-ServerInstance ServerStringOrObject]

[-Database DatabaseName] [-EncryptConnection ]
[-Username UserName] [-Password Password] [[-Query] QueryString] [-DedicatedAdministratorConnection]

[-InputFile FilePath] [ | Out-File –filepath FilePath]

The command’s parameters are used as follows:

–Database Specifies the name of the database that you want to work with. If you don’t use this parameter, the database that is used depends

on whether the current path specifies both the SQLSERVER:SQL folder
and a database name. If both are specified, Invoke-Sqlcmd connects to the database that is specified in the path. Otherwise, Invoke-Sqlcmd connects to the default database for the current login ID.

Use–IgnoreProviderContext to force a connection to the database that is defined as the default for the current login ID.

–DedicatedAdministratorConnection Ensures that a dedicated administrator connection (DAC) is used to force a connection when one might not be possible otherwise.

–EncryptConnection Enables Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption for the connection.

–InputFile Provides the full path to a file that must be used as the query participation. The file can contain T-SQL statements, XQuery statements, SQLCMD orders, and scripting variables. Spaces are not allowable in the file path or file name.

–Password Sets the password for the SQL Server Certification login ID that is specified in –Username.

–Query Defines one or more queries to be run. The queries can be T-SQL queries, XQuery statements, or SQLCMD orders. Separate multiple queries with semicolons.

TIP You do not need to use the SQLCMD GO command. Getting away from any dual quotation marks included in the string and consider using bracketed identifiers such as [EmpTable] instead of quoted identifiers such as “EmpTable”. To ensure that the message output is returned, add the –Verbose parameter. –Verbose is a parameter common to all cmdlets.

–ServerInstance Specifies the name of an instance of the Database Engine that you want to work with. For default instances, specify only the computer name, such as DbServer23. For named instances, use the format “ComputerNameInstanceName”, such as DbServer23EmployeeDb.

–Username Sets the login ID for making a SQL Server certification connection to an instance of the Database Engine. You also must set the password for the login ID.

NOTE By default, Invoke-Sqlcmd attempts a Windows certification connection

by using the Windows tab running the Windows PowerShell session. Windows certification connections are preferred. To use a SQL Server certification connection instead, specify the user name and password for the SQL login ID that you want to use.

With this in mind, you could replace the following T-SQL statements:

USE OrderSystem;
SELECT * FROM Inventory.Product

with the following Windows PowerShell command:

Invoke-Sqlcmd -Query "SELECT * FROM Inventory.Product; ORDER BY Name ASC"
-ServerInstance "DbServer23OrderSystem"

You also could read the orders from a script, as publicized in Try out 1-1. SAMPLE 1-1 Example SQL Command Script.

Contents of SqlCmd.sql Script.

 SELECT * FROM Inventory.Product

Command to Run the Script

 Invoke-Sqlcmd -InputFile "C:ScriptsSqlCmd.sql"

22 PART I Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Essentials

When you work with Windows PowerShell, don’t overlook the importance of SQL Server help being implemented owing to a provider. The data that providers expose appears as a drive that you can browse. One way to browse is to get or set the place with respect to the SqlServer: provider drive. The top of the hierarchy exposed is represented by the SQL folder, then there is a folder for the machine name, and finally, there is a folder for the instance name. Following this, you could navigate to the top-level folder for the default instance by inflowing

Set-Place SQLSERVER:SQLDbServer23Default

You could then determine the available database structures by inflowing Get-ChildItem (or one of its aliases, such as ls or dir). To navigate logins, triggers, endpoints, databases, and any other structures, you set the place to the name of the related folder. For example, you could use Set-Place Databases and then enter Get-ChildItem to list available databases for the selected instance. Of course, if you know the full path you want to work with in the first place, you also can access it directly, as publicized in the following example:

Set-Place SQLSERVER:SQLDbServer23DefaultDatabasesOrderSystem

Here, you navigate to the structures for the OrderSystem database on DbServer23’s default instance. If you then want to determine what tables are available for this database, you could enter:

Get-ChildItem Tables

Or you could enter:

Set-place Tables

To manage SQL Server 2012 from a computer that isn’t running SQL Server, you need to install the management tools. In the SQL Server Installation Center, select Installation, and then click the New Installation Or Add Features To An Existing Installation choice. When the wizard starts, follow the prompts. On the Feature Choice page, select the Management Tools—Basic choice to install Management Studio, SQLCMD, and the SQL Server provider for Windows PowerShell.

For diffident management via Windows PowerShell, you need to ensure that Windows Diffident Management (WinRM) and Windows PowerShell are both installed and made available by using the Add Features Wizard. You also need to make possible diffident orders on both your management computer and the server running SQL Server.

You can verify the availability of WinRM and configure Windows PowerShell for remoting by following these steps:

1. Click Initiation, All Programs, Accessories, and Windows PowerShell. Then initiation Windows PowerShell as an administrator by right-clicking the Windows PowerShell shortcut and selecting Run As Administrator.

2. The WinRM service is configured for manual startup by default. You
must change the startup type to Automatic and initiation the service on each computer you want to work with. At the PowerShell prompt, you can verify that the WinRM service is running by using the following command:

      get-service winrm

        0. f the service is stopped, enter the following command to initiation the service and configure it to initiation automatically in the future:

            set-service –name winrm –startuptype automatic –status running

        1. To configure Windows PowerShell for remoting, type the following command:

            Make possible-PSRemoting –force

You can make possible remoting only when your computer is connected to a domain or private network. If your computer is connected to a public network, you need to disconnect from the public network and connect to a domain or private network and then repeat this step. If one or more of your computer’s connections has the Public connection type but you are really connected to a domain or private network, you need to change the network connection type in the Network And Sharing Center and then repeat this step.

In many cases, you can work with diffident computers in other domains. Even if, if the diffident computer is not in a trusted domain, the diffident computer might not be able to authenticate your credentials. To make possible certification, you need to add the diffident computer to the list of trusted hosts for the local computer in WinRM. To do so, type the following:

winrm s winrm/config/client ‘@{TrustedHosts=”RemoteComputer”}’ where RemoteComputer is the name of the diffident computer, such as winrm s winrm/config/client ‘@{TrustedHosts=”DbServer23″}’

When you are working with computers in workgroups or homegroups, you must use HTTPS as the transport or add the diffident machine to the TrustedHosts configuration settings. If you cannot connect to a diffident host, you can verify that the service on the diffident host is running and is accepting requests by running the following command on the diffident host:

winrm quickconfig
Status   Name
------   ----
Running  WinRM
Windows Diffident Management

24 PART I Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Essentials

This command analyzes and configures the WinRM service. If the WinRM service is set up correctly, you see output similar to the following:

WinRM already is set up to receive requests on this machine.
WinRM already is set up for diffident management on this machine.

If the WinRM service is not set up correctly, you see errors and need to respond affirmatively to several prompts that allow you to configure diffident management automatically. When this process is complete, WinRM must be set up correctly. Don’t forget that you need to make possible diffident management on the database server as well as your management computer.

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